Fermentation is a process that converting the sugar
in the grapes into alcohol and carbon dioxides gas
by the natural yeasts which live alongside grapes
on the skins, in the vineyard and winery.
Due to the differences of the appearance, smell &
taste. There are 3 types of wine:
Light (Still) Wine;
For light wines, you can have red, rose & white
in color. They are usually between 8% - 15% alcohol.
Sparkling wines are starting with a still base wine.
They are wines where bubbles of carbon dioxide gas
have been trapped in the bottle of the wine. There
are several methods to make sparkling wines over the
Traditional method (Champagne
method / Methode Champenoise)
First of all, a high quality, dry white wine is made
with ordinary tank fermentation. Once the wine is
completed, it is placed into special, heavyweight
bottles and a fresh dose of yeast and sugar is added.
The bottles are then capped and placed in the cool
cellars for up to 2 years. During this time, a secondary
fermentation takes place. The yeasts and sugars create
CO2 that, because it is in a sealed container, CO2
cannot escape so dissolves into the liquid. In the
past, Champagne production was a dangerous business
- cellars were destroyed by exploding wines. Controlled
production methods and stronger bottles have eliminated
The problem with this technique is the deposit of
dead yeast cells that collects in the bottle. In still
wines these would simply be filtered out, but since
that would also remove the bubbles, another method
had to be found. This process is known as Remuage:
an action whereby each bottle is shaken lightly, revolved
and its position adjusted, so that over the course
of a few weeks the bottle ends up upside-down with
the dead yeast cells captured in the neck of the bottle.
At this stage, the inverted bottles are carefully
transported to a freezing tank. The necks are dipped
in, just to the level of the gathered sediment, which
freezes into a solid "plug" of dead yeast
cells. The caps are removed and the gas pressure shoots
the plug out. Depending on the style of wine being
made (dry, medium or sweet) the bottles are topped
up with a "dosage" of reserved wine and
This is a less common method for creating
a sparkling wine. As secondary fermentation takes
place in individual bottles like Champagne but instead
of the expensive remuage process, the wine is cleared
by filtration and is then pumped, under pressure,
into clean bottles.
Tank Method (Cuve close
/ Charmat method)
For sweet sparkling, first fermentation of the base
wine occurred. Fermentation then interrupted by filtering
out the yeast and the second fermentation takes place
in a sealed tank.
By this method, the second fermentation takes place
by adding sugar and yeast into a pressurized tank
after a full fermentation. The wine is then filtered
to remove the yeasty sediment and bottled under pressure.
Asti & Prosecco of Italy and Sekt of Germany &
Austria are usually using this method.
People simply carbonate the wine by pumping gas into
it while bottling. This is the most basic method.
They are also known as 'liqueur' wines. This means
the wines have had extra alcohol added and therefore
have higher alcohol levels of 15% - 22%. Like Port